Romanian Higher or Tertiary Education Qualifications
The Romanian higher education system is organised at three levels:
- Undergraduate education
- Graduate education
- Postgraduate education
The undergraduate and graduate education can be organised as:
- Daily classes
- Evening classes
- Reduced frequency education
- Long distance education
The Ph.D studies can be organized as:
- Daily classes
- Reduced frequency education
The medical studies programs can only be organized as daily classes.
Undergraduate education offers 2 types of programmes:
Short-term university programmes: These programmes are of 2-3 years in duration and are offered by the university colleges in Romania. Students who have completed their short-term university education can go for long-term university education, under the conditions set up by individual institution.
Long-term university education: The length of the long-term university programmes is 4-6 years and they are offered by the academies, universities and conservatories in Romania.
Graduate education programmes consist of:
Advanced studies: These programmes last for 1-2 years and are for university graduates. Upon the completion of the advanced studies, students are awarded a degree diploma.
Master studies: The Master’s programmes are of 1-2 years and for university graduates.
Graduate academic studies: The length of the graduate academic studies is 2-3 years. These programmes are organised by graduate study schools in connection with the universities, or operating as autonomous units.
The duration of doctoral studies is 4-6 years and these programmes are provided by the accredited universities and research institutes. Upon completion of the programme, scientific title of doctor is granted by the institution. This title is validated by the National Council for the Attestation of Academic Titles, University Diplomas and Certificates.
Diploma and Certificates
In Romania, there are many academic graduate and post-graduate diplomas and certificates that one can receive:
Certificate of Studies (Certificat de studii): This certificate is awarded to pupils who have finished their higher education studies, but have failed to pass in order to obtain their degree:
College diploma (Diploma de absolvire a unui colegiu): This diploma confirms the completion of studies at a college and the passing of the related final examination.
University diploma equivalent degree (Diploma de licenta)
Master diploma (Diploma de magister/master)
Diploma of Advanced Studies (Diploma de studii aprofundate)
Diploma of Graduate Academic Studies (Diploma de studii academice): This type of diploma is awarded by the graduate schools, within a higher education institution. Such schools accept holders of the first academic degree at the end of a 2-three year graduate study programme.
Doctoral Diploma - Ph.D. (Diploma de doctor): This is the highest academic degree awarded in all fields. The length of study is 4-6 years. Pupils are required to submit an original research thesis and pass examinations in order to receive this diploma. It follows the first academic degree or master's degree. The holder of a doctoral diploma is awarded the Ph.D. title or title of doctor in the respective area of the arts or science.
Doctor Honoris Causa: This degree is awarded by higher education institutions by vote of the Senate to Romanian and international well-known figures in culture, science and technology.
Universities in Romania follow three cycles:
First Cycle-Bachelor Studies
The bachelor studies duration varies depending on the area of specialisation:
- Social and economics, fine arts, sciences, law, humanities, sports, and political science: duration- 3 years comprising 6 semesters
- Agriculture, technological sciences, forestry and engineering: duration- 4 years,comprising 8 semesters
- Dentistry, architecture, general medicine, and veterinary medicine: duration- 6 years,comprising 12 semesters
- ECTS Credits: 180- 240
Second Cycle: Master’s Studies
- Duration: 2 years
- ECTS credits: 90-120
Third Cycle: PhD (Postgraduate doctoral studies)
- Duration: 4-6 years depending upon the study programme
- Domains: Science and Arts
Candidates must submit and defend the doctoral thesis in public. The title and the subject of the thesis must be approved by the council of the department.
According the Education Law no 1/2011, PhD programmes are of 2 types:
Scientific PhD: This is based on scientific methods. This type of PhD is required to be a professor in the higher education sector or as a researcher.
Professional PhD: This type of PhD is given in arts and sports, and forms the basis for the professional career in higher education and research in arts and sports.